A program which translates programs written in a notation suitable for humans into code suitable for execution by a computer.
A system that supports the execution of computer programs. A typical and important example is dynamic memory management, the act of allocating portions of memory to programs at their request, and freeing it for reuse when no longer needed.
A procedure has a side effect if, in addition to behaving like a mathematical function that returns a value, it also modifies some persistent state. The latter is achieved by modifying a global or static variable, modifying an argument of the procedure, raising an exception, writing data to a file, etc.
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