Fernando J ("Corby") Corbato

United States – 1990
Short Annotated Bibliography
  1. J. A. Stratton, P. M. Morse, L. J. Chu, J. D. C. Little and F. J. Corbato, Spheroidal Wave Functions Including Tables of Separation Constants and Coefficients, MIT Press, 1959. A set of tables of spheroidal wave functions designed to simplify the computation of acoustic and electromagnetic scattering from spheroids. The tables were computed to five-place accuracy on the Whirlwind digital computer, and automatically tabulated.
  2. Corbató, F. J., M. M. Daggett, and R. C. Daley, “An experimental time-sharing system”, AFIPS Conference Proceedings, Vol. 21, pp. 335-344, 1962.  http://larch-www.lcs.mit.edu:8001/~corbato/sjcc62/ One of the first formal papers describing an implemented time-sharing system. Describes the need for time-sharing, and the features and implementation problems of CTSS as of 1962. Also describes the multi-level feedback queue scheduling algorithm employed in CTSS.
  3. Corbató, F. J., M. M. Daggett, R. C. Daley, R. J. Creasy, J. D. Hellwig, R. H. Orenstein, and L. K. Korn, The compatible time-sharing system: a programmer's guide, 1st ed, MIT Press, June 1963,  http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/mit/ctss/CTSS_ProgrammersGuide.pdf  The so-called "candy stripe" manual that described early versions of CTSS.
  4. Corbató, F. J., and V. A. Vyssotsky, “Introduction and overview of the Multics system”, AFIPS Conference Proceedings, Vol. 27, pp. 185-196, 1965,  http://www.multicians.org/fjcc1.html  Formal paper introducing the goals and plans for Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service), planned to be implemented on the GE 645 computer. Introduces the goal of serving as a "computer utility" similar to electric power utilities.
  5. Corbató, F. J., C. T. Clingen, and J. H. Saltzer, “Multics -- the first seven years”, Proceedings of the Spring Joint Computer Conference, pp. 571-583, May 1972, http://www.multicians.org/f7y.html  Goals, history and status of the Multics project as of 1972. Describes five key insights and their realization: modular division of responsibility, dynamic reconfiguration, automatically managed multilevel memory, protection of programs and data, and use of PL/I as a system programming language.
  6. Corbató, F. J., and C. T. Clingen, “A Managerial View of the Multics System Development”, in Research Directions in Software Technology, edited by P. Wegner, M.I.T. Press, 1979,  http://www.multicians.org/managerial.html  Goals, history and status of the Multics project as of 1977. Describes technical, managerial, and organizational problems encountered, and management tools employed. Four major reasons for success are described: evolutionary design, goal documentation, high-level language implementation, and personal dedication.
  7. Corbató, F. J., “On building systems that will fail”, (A. M. Turing Award lecture), Communications of the ACM, Vol. 34, No. 9, September 1991. http://larch-www.lcs.mit.edu:8001/~corbato/turing91/  A high-level view of large, complex systems and how their actual behavior can diverge from human expectations. Examples from the history of CTSS and Multics.
  8. Ritchie, D. M., “UNIX Time-Sharing System: A Retrospective,” Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 57 Num. 6, October 1978, pp. 1947-1969.  A description of the UNIX operating system.
  9. Walden, David, and Tom Van Vleck, Compatible Time Sharing System (1961-1973) Fiftieth Anniversary Commemorative Overview, IEEE Computer Society, Washington DC, 2011. http://www.multicians.org/thvv/compatible-time-sharing-system.pdf  The IEEE Computer Society History Committee prepared a document in June 2011 in honor of the 50th anniversary of CTSS. It contains an extensive bibliography and interviews with former developers and users.
  10. Multicians web site,  http://www.multicians.org/  Comprehensive history of the Multics system, its builders, and its uses.
  11. Frenkel, Karen, "An interview with Fernando Jose Corbató", Communications of the ACM, Volume 34 No. 9, Sept. 1991,  http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=114669.114688  Corby discusses his history, including Whirlwind, CTSS, Project MAC, and Multics.
  12. Norberg, Arthur L., "An interview of Fernando Corbató, conducted by Arthur L. Norberg on 18 April 1989 and 14 November 1990," Charles Babbage Institute call number OH 162,  conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/107230/1/oh162fjc.pdf  Professor Corbató discusses computer science research, especially time-sharing, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), including Whirlwind, CTSS, and Multics.
  13. Webber, Steven H., "Oral History of Fernando Corbató conducted by Steven Webber on February 1, 2006," Computer History Museum reference number X3438.2006. http://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/access/text/Oral_History/102658041.05.01.acc.pdf  Fernando Corbató reviews his early educational and naval experiences in the Eddy program during World War II. A detailed exploration of Corbató's time-sharing systems projects including the Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), Project MAC, and Multics completes the oral history.
  14. Corby was interviewed by John Fitch for "MIT Science Reporter" On WGBH-TV Boston on May 9, 1963,  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q07PhW5sCEk Prof. Corbató demonstrated CTSS running on MIT's IBM 7090. The program aired on WGBH on May 16, 1963.